Thank you to Nadine for presenting a case of a young woman with very complex medical history including cryptogenic cirrhosis s/p TIPS, hepatic encephalopathy on lactulose and rifaximin listed for transplant, aplastic anemia, CAD s/p mid-LAD thrombectomy, LAD dissection, APS antibody positive on ASA, short telomere syndrome, who was admitted for neutropenic fever and evolution of spontaneous subdural hematomas in the setting of coagulopathy and thrombocytopenia. Wow!
- ANC <500 or <1000 with anticipated decline
- Single temperature >38.3 or >38 sustained for more than 1 hour
When you think about empiric coverage, consider patients as either high risk or low risk. Here’s a breakdown of high vs. low from Medscape.
High-risk patients are those patients with any one of the following:
- Anticipated, prolonged (>7-d duration), and profound neutropenia (ANC <100/µL) following cytotoxic chemotherapy
- Significant medical comorbidities, including hypotension, pneumonia, new-onset abdominal pain, or neurologic changes
Low-risk patients are those with the following
- Anticipated brief (<7-d duration) period of neutropenia
- ANC greater than 100/µL and absolute monocyte count greater than 100/µL
- Normal findings on chest radiograph
- Outpatient status at the time of fever onset
- No associated acute comorbid illness
- No hepatic or renal insufficiency
- Early evidence of bone marrow recovery
- Most of the guidelines for neutropenia come from patients with chemotherapy induced neutropenia – these patients are at the highest risk for acute infection due to the combination of both low neutrophil count and mucositis.
- However, patients with other causes of neutropenia who have had absolute low neutrophils for prolonged periods of time, may be at higher risk for indolent infections.
Infected Subdural Hematomas
- As HH mentioned most subdural infections represent local extension of paranasal sinusitis or otitis, or are complication of intracranial surgery.
- Infection of a subdural hematoma is a usual cause of subdural empyema with < 50 cases reported (see article below).
- May transform in the setting of pre-existing subdural via hematogenous infection (concerning for our patient with new murmur and AMS).
- Mostly seen in adults > 60 and immunolofic dysfunction (eg neutropenia).
- Microbiology: Varied considerably. Of the 47 case reports 13 cases reported E. Coli (27%), 8 cases reported Salmonella (17%), Staph aureus in 6 cases (13%) and Streptococcus in 5 cases (10%). The rest were a mix of Klebsiella, Campylobacter or unknown.
- Signs and symptoms are non-specific and include altered sensorium (depressed level of consciousness), fevers and focal deficits.
- MRI has become the imaging modality of choice in patients with infected subdural hematoma. It is superior to CT scans for the demonstration of extra axial fluid and rim enhancement, and in the visualization of the presence of pus.
- Definitive management is surgical: both burr hole and craniotomy.
- The best surgical option is not well defined, however based on limited data the recurrence rate seems to be lower with craniotomy.
See the following review article for more information.