Definition: varies, often defined as >600 ml expectorated in 24 hours
- leading cause worldwide: TB
- leading cause in US: chronic inflammatory lung disease and bronchogenic carcinoma
- majority originates from bronchial arteries (high systemic pressure), pulmonary arteries only the cause in ~5%.
Most common etiologies:
- Neoplasm: bronchial carcinoma/adenoma and metastatic lung ca
- infections: mycobacteria, fungal, lung abscess, pargonimiasis, hydatid cyst
- vascular: PE, mitral stenosis, iatrogenic damage to pulmonary artery, broncho-arterial fistula, AVM
- Vasculitis: Behcet’s, GPA
- miscellaneous: anticoagulant/coagulopathies, goodpasture’s
Jean-Baptiste, E. Clinical assessment and management of massive hemoptysis. Critical care Medicine. 28(5) 2000. 1642-1647.